EARLY INTERVENTION FOR HEARING IMPAIRED CHILD AND EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION BETWEEN PARENTS AND THEIR HEARING IMPAIRED CHILDREN PLAYS AN ESSENTIAL ROLE IN DEVELOPMENT AND SOCIAL GROWTH OF CHILD.
Author: Robina Naqvi
Designation: Headmistress Govt. Special education center Bosan Town Multan
The world-wide progress has bought tremendous change in innovation and advancement in hearing technology, early detection and intervention. In addition, technology has rehabilitate hope regarding children with hearing impairment and they are really capable of listening, developing spoken language, have improvement in academic learning and social performance. In present time, two important issues about disability sector are need to be concerned, firstly early intervention or early detection of hearing impaired child secondly, guidance of parents of hearing impaired children about how to communicate with them. Furthermore, parent’s participation, guidance, education and support enable children with hearing loss to grow up in regular learning environment, so they can become confident, self-determine, participate and contribute their role as a useful citizen in integrated society (Easterbrooks ,S.R & Estes,E.L, 2007).
Early intervention of hearing impaired child about hearing loss
Early intervention help to develop a child’s prospective, so that the child can effectively take part into normal society moreover, hearing loss can be detected at birth, and mostly children can develop fluent spoken language through audition (Easterbrooks ,S.R & Estes,E.L, 2007). However, in the past early intervention for hearing impaired child is difficult due to lack of advancement in technology but, now with the help of latest diagnostic equipment early intervention is possible as well as confirming hearing loss and correct screening even detection of hearing loss in children who are born deaf, have resulted in histrionic changes in the lives of children with hearing impairment with the facility of universal Newborn Hearing programmes (UNHS), at a very young age hearing loss can be detected so that with effective intervention children with hearing impaired can improve proper language and able to participate with their peers in regular schools(Fleming,J.L.,at,el.,2011).
On the whole, children with hearing loss have problems accessing regular and consistent through spoken language, so they have poor learning experiences, besides, it create a weak foundation for accessing knowledge and developing skills(Kluwin T,N., & Gaustsd, M,G.,1994). Certainly, recent research on brain mapping defines that primary reading centres of the brain are located in the auditory cortex and it’s a major reason for the difficulty in reading for hearing impaired children because they do not have access to auditory input although they have fine vision (Fleming,J.L.,at,el.,2011).If Child is allowed to have access to meaningful sound efficiently as early as possible, he will have a better chance to developing spoken language, academic skills and literacy (Easterbrook ,& Estes,2007).At the same time, due to early intervention the gap between chronological age and language age is closed, in the result children achieve high level of linguistic proficiency and children with hearing loss become more closer to the standards of typical hearing children (Easterbrook ,& Estes,2007).
Guidance of parents of hearing impaired children
Similarly, when parents of hearing impaired know their infants and toddlers has hearing loss and at that time they feel communication with their children may become very difficult for them furthermore, it is evaluated from the studies when hearing loss is diagnosed ,parents of hearing impaired children avoid more speaking with them as well as when hearing impaired child is non-communicative with their parents, they may feel distance from the child and become anxious with the intervention process( Easterbrook ,& Estes,2007).
Early intervention provides perception about implementing participation-based practice regarding Parents guidance to their hearing impaired child and also use of sign language play a most important role in their social growth, likewise more than 90% of parents of hearing impaired children cannot communicate effectively and frequently with their children because they do not know sign language( Marschark, M.,1997). Educators and researcher have begun to recognize, over 20 years before the consequences of effectiveness of early communication so, it is necessary for the parents of hearing impaired children to start early communication to understand his or her non-verbal communication and provide them better understanding about their surroundings (Gregory & Hindley, 1996).
Many hearing parents who have very limited sign language training they do not use it mostly day –to –day needs because they find it difficult to use sign language especially in public, they use when they have directly contact to child, latter it causes restriction to great impact on child learning language because children can learn language indirectly from different ways like overhearing conversations of others, television exposure and other related sources instead of using direct teaching approach , in the same time if parents have deficiency in using sign language with their hearing impaired child, it has a negative effect on child because these parents are unclear about the needs, wants and lack of capabilities to understand their child(Vaccari, C.,& Marschark, M.1997).
Hearing impaired children and their mothers have to develop attention switching strategies that mother can use sign language and nonverbal context with her child. With the help of visual communication hearing impaired children and their mothers can develop alternative interactional strategies very successfully for example physical contact, gesture, eye contact and facial expression ( Vaccari, C.,& Marschark, M.1997).
To sum up, early intervention for hearing impaired child and effective communication between parents and their hearing impaired children plays an essential role in development and social growth of child. Parents face challenging position to use sign language and other oral-aural or visual- spatial modes of communication. Furthermore, to fulfil the communication needs and develop good relationship with their hearing impaired children, parents have to learn different strategies, skills, sign language, counselling for the education of their hearing impaired child.
Easterbrooks, S. R., & Estes, E. L. (2007). Helping deaf and hard of hearing students to use spoken language: A guide for educators and families. Corwin Press.
Fleming, J. L., Sawyer, L. B., & Campbell, P. H. (2011). Early intervention providers’ perspectives about implementing participation-based practices.Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 30(4), 233-244.Fleming, J. L., Sawyer, L. B., & Campbell, P. H. (2011). Early intervention providers’ perspectives about implementing participation-based practices.Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 30(4), 233-244.
Gregory, S., & Hindley, P. (1996). Annotation: Communication strategies for deaf children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 37(8), 895-905.
Kluwin, T. N., & Gaustad, M. G. (1994). The role of adaptability and communication in fostering cohesion in families with deaf adolescents.American annals of the deaf, 139(3), 329-335.
Marschark, M. (1997). Psychological development of deaf children. Oxford University Press.